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Child labour: A minor risk?

Sustainability / 27-09-17 / by

Falling commodity prices have led to an increase in human rights abuses, including the use of child labour in global supply chains, particularly in Africa. Sanne Wass reports.


Human rights is no longer a concern for activists and NGOs alone. It is an issue that is fundamental to business. Facing reputational, legal and financial risks – perhaps combined with moral concern – the corporate world has, over the last few years, been taking more action to ensure their supply chains respect human rights.

The disclosure of supply chain due diligence, for one, has become a key business instrument for big international technology companies, who as a result have defied Donald Trump’s attempt to liberalise US legislation on conflict minerals.

Meanwhile, impact investment – namely investmentinto companies that have a positive social or environmental impact – is rising in popularity too.

But despite a growing awareness of human rights, research suggests that many firms are still underestimating the risk.

A recent study by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), which surveyed business executives from companies around the world, found a “worrying degree of complacency on the part of business” when it comes to tackling supply chain issues on climate change, gender balance and human rights. For example, only 22% are addressing child labour concerns; yet only 2% thought their companies had irresponsible supply chains.

The findings are not insignificant considering that more than 150 million children are estimated by UNICEF to be engaged in child labour globally, with the highest levels in Africa.

It is an issue that is growing in severity. According to experts, the global commodity slump has driven a rise in social risks, including child labour. And to make matters worse, it is also forcing many companies to reduce their spend on preventing this activity.


Price drop presents new risks

Lower commodity prices may be good news for buyers, but for others, it has had devastating consequences. “The commodity downturn had a very stark negative impact on most of Africa, from 2012 onwards,” says Warren Beech, partner and head of mining at Hogan Lovells.

Many of the mining companies the law firm deals with in Africa have been forced to scale down, and a lot of projects have been put on hold. And the consequences are only becoming more visible over time, Beech explains: “The significant impact this year has been that, because of the situation the industry finds itself in, the number of fatalities has dramatically increased, so there seems to be a direct correlation between the commodity downturn and safety spend.”

Another disturbing outcome is the rise in illegal mining, and with that has come a proliferation of child labour, says Giles Hedley, a Johannesburg-based investor relations officer at Barak Fund Management. “The biggest risk is illegal mining. Children from six years old and up engage in these activities. Operations don’t meet safety thresholds, so death and injury are common. Proceeds from illicit trading in commodities are often used to fund rebel activity in places like northeast DR Congo,” he says, emphasising that Barak has no association with borrowers implicated in such activities.

The rise in child labour risks is not limited to hard commodities: a plummeting cocoa price, for example, has hit cocoa producing countries hard.

Côte d’Ivoire, the world’s largest cocoa producer, has suffered more than most. With the minimum farmgate price (which is fixed by government before harvest) set higher than what the global market would offer, buyers consequently backed out, leaving cocoa piling up at the country’s main port and farmers with no revenue.

Cocoa production in Côte d’Ivoire is mainly driven by smallholder farmers, who are highly dependent on cocoa as an income and thus particularly vulnerable to volatile prices. They are already far below the national poverty level, earning approximately €0.86 per day, according to a study by the French Development Agency (AFD) and Swiss chocolate producer Barry-Callebaut, released in February.

“With this decrease in cocoa prices it means the situation has deteriorated further,” says Maja Bovcon, a senior analyst with a West African focus at global risk consultancy Verisk Maplecroft. The effects, she explains, are especially seen in the growing use of child labour in cocoa fields. Lower incomes mean more dependency on a free workforce, but it also means less money for families to send their children to school, making them more likely to end up working on the farms.

“Already between 350,000 to 1 million children work on these farms in Côte d’Ivoire,” she says, adding that while many of them are family members, the numbers also include children being trafficked across the border from neighbouring countries.

Other players in the sector are also tracking the trend. In its annual report published in June (on the World Day Against Child Labour), the International Cocoa Initiative (ICI) warned that the current low world market price for cocoa is threatening to undermine the progress to reduce child labour in the cocoa sector and creating “an ever greater urgency to scale up measures” to address the problem.

Côte d’Ivoire is not alone, Bovcon explains, with countries like Ghana and Nigeria, also big cocoa producing countries, facing the same challenges.

Many of the affected nations already have extensive legislation aimed at putting an end to child labour and other human rights abuses. In Côte d’Ivoire, for example, Bovcon says children are required to carry a birth certificate when crossing the border. But the drop in economic performances has led to a weaker enforcement of the rules. Added to this, she says, comes the decline in the number of inspectors, making it difficult to monitor activities on the farms.

“This weak national law enforcement means that the enforcement into child labour will fall on the companies themselves, also with the help of NGOs,” she says.


Legal, reputational, financial risk

For businesses operating in these sectors, there is good reason to take heed of the cautions.

“Tackling modern slavery and related human rights abuses is now more than an ethical imperative advocated by human rights groups,” notes a report on human trafficking and the role of financial institutions, released earlier this year by the Royal United Services Institute think tank. “It is now a business imperative for the private sector and failure to manage them could negatively affect a company’s share, price, brand value and operational performance.”

One important concern for most companies is the reputational risk: consumer-facing companies in particular can be easily targeted by campaigns and consumer boycotts.

But failing to address human rights issues in your supply chain could also have legal repercussions. In 2011, the UN Human Rights Council endorsed the Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights, a set of benchmark principles created to address adverse human rights impacts linked to business. While these are regarded as soft law, and not legally binding, they have created an expectation that businesses will respect the principles and have also led to the introduction of legal statutes on national levels, one of the most prominent being the 2015 UK Modern Slavery Act.

From a financing perspective, too, being associated with irresponsible supply chains comes with a risk of lenders and investors pulling their support.

“If we come across anything that we deem to be crossing over lines from a human rights perspective, we would certainly seize to work with that borrower,” says Hedley at Barak. “We have a reputation in the market that we need to preserve.”

He adds that investments into activities that have a positive social and environmental impact are surging. Barak manages an impact investment fund, which has received significant interest over the last year.

But despite the continued drive to maintain responsible supply chains, the corporate world doesn’t always devote enough resources and attention.

Even if a large majority agrees that corporate actions on human rights are important, 28% of respondents to the EIU’s survey believe that respecting human rights is a simple matter of complying with relevant laws. The survey also found that while the majority of firms have prioritised supply chain responsibility in the last five years, 30% have decreased their focus over the same period.

The study also concludes that firms are more likely to address working hour limits and living wages in their supply chains ahead of child labour – which may come down to the fact that child labour often happens far away from a company’s base and is insulated by multiple layers of intermediary firms, which makes it harder to detect.

What’s more, raw materials firms were the worst performing industrial group in terms of addressing child labour, a “disappointing” finding considering that some of the most prominent exposés of child labour have been related to mining, says the study.

One of the biggest barriers is the lack of resources, concludes another Economist Intelligence Unit report on today’s challenges for business in respecting human rights. The challenge, it says, is that investing in human rights policies is typically driven by long-term opportunities within brand and reputation management and stakeholder relations. These goals usually have an impact on the bottom line in the long run, but often lack a clear and immediate business case. This means that human rights policies and programmes are more vulnerable to cuts when resources are limited.

Louise Moore is a partner at Hogan Lovells in London, where she heads up the company’s international environment practice. She sees a similar trend amongst some companies, investors and financiers: lower revenues often lead to the demotion of human rights due diligence and procedure to a tick box exercise. Many firms, she explains, continue to have their fingers burnt for taking a ‘minimum compliance’ approach to tackling the issues. In fact, she has come across situations where the remedy has led to greater human rights issues and a whole raft of new problems, such as violence, because of a lack of understanding of the local communities.

“You can’t just go in there like a bull in a china shop and think it can be cured overnight, you really need to understand the local issues and look for long-term improvement,” she says. “Even when you have got a hard law violation, a hard law remedy is not necessarily going to be the best and most effective from a human rights perspective.”


Collaboration and technology

One company dealing with these issues in its every day operations is Olam Cocoa, part of the agribusiness conglomerate Olam Group.

The company’s commercial head of cocoa sustainability, Alistair Davis, recognises that the lower farm gate price in Côte d’Ivoire has put huge pressure on local communities, and labour in particular, and exacerbated already existing problems in cocoa supply chains.

For Olam, addressing these problems is about much more than due diligence and minimum regulatory compliance. It takes this approach because it makes sense from a sustainable commercial perspective, Davis says.

“It’s about understanding each community,” he says. “Are there schools nearby? Is it a better equipped community? If we understand that, we can action a more tangible impact.”

Building a school in an area that doesn’t have one can be an important first step to get the children off the farms. Financing, too, Davis says, is a key tool to help farmers weather the worst consequences of the price downturn. Last year alone, Olam provided a total of US$110mn in short-term financing to cocoa farmers. These loans are interest-free and offered to farmers all year round, including in difficult times when other financiers may not be willing to take on the risk.

Davis also emphasises the importance of working with other parties, such as labour associations, as well as having the right infrastructure in place to deal with any issues the company may come across in its due diligence. One way in which Olam does this is by setting up Child Labour Monitoring and Remediation Systems, involving committees led by the local communities, which decide on the appropriate strategies to tackle a specific problem. “The end-state is not for multinational firms to be the police – this has to be organic within each community,” he says.

One crucial tool to help the company take this holistic approach is its Olam Farmer Information System (OFIS), which Davis says has been “a revolutionary tech innovation for collecting and analysing smallholder farm data, which in previous years wasn’t possible”. The system is a mapping tool that aggregates data conducted from the farms via surveys, showing anything from the age and gender of the workers to the nearest school or hospital.

This traceability allows Olam to better understand the risk landscape and it is a key differentiator for the company in addressing child labour and other social risks in its supply chain. So far 100,000 farmers in 21 countries have been registered to the system, and Olam is aiming for 500,000 by 2020.

“It builds a great risk appreciation of the area. Through that we have been able to shape a lot of needs assessments and investments,” Davis says.

Great importance lies with the acknowledgement that the risks exist in the first place – a concept that the EIU’s survey conveys too.

“A failure to acknowledge the risks is not a positive result,” the report reads. “Given that many key issues are being overlooked in supply chains, it would have been a more positive result if a higher proportion of executives had declared that their firms did not yet have responsible supply chains.”

The more an executive understands the company’s supply chain risks, it says, the more negatively they are likely to feel about their firm’s performance – which may prompt action.

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Established in 2002 and with offices in London and Singapore, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd is the world’s leading trade and trade finance media company, offering information, news, events and services for companies and individuals involved in global trade.

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We collect certain personal data from you, which you give to us when using our Site and/or registering or subscribing for our products and services. However, we also give you the option to access our Sites’ home pages without subscribing or registering or disclosing your personal data.

We also collect certain personal data from other group companies to whom you have given information through their websites (including, by way of example, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd and subsidiaries, in accordance with the purposes listed below). Should we discover that any such personal data has been delivered to any of the Sites, we will remove that information as soon as possible.

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This Data Protection Policy ensures Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd:

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Data protection law

The Data Protection Act 1998 described how organisations – including Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd – must collect, handle and store personal information. These rules apply regardless of whether data is stored electronically, on paper or on other materials. To comply with the law, personal information collected must be stored safely, not disclosed unlawfully and used fairly.

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We obtain information about you when you use our website, for example, when you contact us about products and services, when you register for an event, register to receive eNewsletters, subscribe or register for a trial to our GTR magazine/website.

 Types of Personal Data Held and its Use

1.      Customer Services and Administration

On some Sites, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd collects personal data such as your name, job title, department, company, e-mail, phone, work and/or home address, in order to register you for access to certain content, subscriptions and events. In addition, we may also store information including IP address and page analytics, including information regarding what pages are accessed, by whom and when.

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2.      Monitoring use of our Sites

Where, as part of our Site services, we enable you to post information or materials on our Site, we may access and monitor any information which you upload or input, including in any password-protected sections. Subject to any necessary consents, we also monitor and/or record the different Sites you visit and actions taken on those Sites, e.g. content viewed or searched for. If you are a registered user (e.g. a subscriber or taking a trial), when you log on, this places a cookie on your machine. This enables your access to content and services that

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3.      Marketing

Some of your personal data collected under paragraphs 1 and 2 above may be used by us to contact you by e-mail, telephone and/or post for sending information or promotional material on our products and/or services and/or those of our other group companies.
We give you the opportunity to opt-out of receiving marketing communications. Further detail can be found on the applicable Site and in the footer of each marketing communication sent by us, our group companies or service providers. See also “Consents and opt-outs” section below.
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4.      Profiling

We may analyse your personal information to create a profile of your interests and preferences so that we can contact you with information relevant to you.

5.      Cookies and similar technologies

All our Sites use cookies and similar technical tools to collect information about your access to the Site and the services we provide.

What is a cookie?

When you enter some sites, your computer will be issued with a cookie. Cookies are text files that identify your computer to servers. Cookies in themselves do not identify the individual user, just the computer used.

Many sites do this whenever a user visits their site in order to track traffic flows, recording those areas of the site that have been visited by the computer in question, and for how long.

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Why do we use cookies?

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  • gather information about the pages on the Site that you visit, and other information about other websites that you visit, so as to place you in a “market segment”. This information is only collected by reference to the IP address that you are using, but does include information about the county and city you are in, together with the name of your internet service provider.

Most web browsers automatically accept cookies but, if you prefer, you can change your browser to prevent that, or to notify you each time a cookie is set. You can also learn more about cookies in general by visiting which includes additional useful information on cookies and how to block cookies using different types of browser. Please note however, that by blocking, deleting or turning off cookies used on the Site you may not be able to take full advantage of the Site.

6.      E-mail tracking

E-mail tracking is a method for monitoring the e-mail delivery to those subscribers who have opted-in to receive marketing e-mails from GTR, including GTR Africa, GTR Asia, GTR Americas, GTR Europe, GTR Mena, GTR eNews, Third party e-mails and GTR Ventures.

Why do we track e-mails?

So that we can better understand our users’ needs, we track responses, subscription behaviour and engagement to our e-mails – for example, to see which links are the most popular in newsletters. They enable us to understand the consumers journey through metrics including open rate, click-through rate, bounces and unsubscribes. Any other purposes for which Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd wishes to use your personal data will be notified to you and your personal data will not be used for any such purpose without obtaining your prior consent.

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To do this, we use pixel GIFs, also known as “pixel tags” – these are small image files that are placed within the body of our e-mail messages. When that image is downloaded from our web servers, the e-mail is recorded as being opened. By using some form of digitally time-stamped record to reveal the exact time and date that an e-mail was received or opened, as well the IP address of the recipient.

7.      Consents and opt-outs

You can give your consent to opt-out of all or any particular uses of your data as indicated above by:

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To turn cookies and similar technologies on and off, see the information in paragraph 5 above. Any questions regarding consents and opt-outs should be sent by e-mail to or by writing to Data Protection Officer at, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd, 4 Hillgate Place, London, SW12 9ER, United Kingdom. Alternatively, you can telephone our London headquarters at +44 (0) 20 8673 9666.

8.      Disclosures

Information collected at one Site may be shared between Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd and other group companies for the purposes listed above.

We may transfer, sell or assign any of the information described in this policy to third parties as a result of a sale, merger, consolidation, change of control, transfer of assets or reorganisation of our business.

9.      Public forums, message boards and blogs

Some of our Sites may have a message board, blogs or other facilities for user generated content available and users can participate in these facilities. Any information that is disclosed in these areas becomes public information and you should always be careful when deciding to disclose your personal information.

10.  Data outside the EEA

Services on the Internet are accessible globally so collection and transmission of personal data is not always limited to one country. Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd may transfer your personal data, for the above-listed purposes to other third parties, which may be located outside the European Economic Area and/or with a different level of personal data protection. However, when conducting transfers, we take all necessary steps to ensure that your data is treated reasonably, securely and in accordance with this Privacy Statement.

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Confidentiality and Security of Your Personal Data

We are committed to keeping the data you provide us secure and will take reasonable precautions to protect your personal data from loss, misuse or alteration.

However, the transmission of information via the internet is not completely secure. Although we will do our best to protect your personal data, we cannot guarantee the security of your data transmitted to our Site; any transmission is at your own risk. Once we have received your information, we will use strict procedures and security features described above to try to prevent unauthorised access.

We have implemented information security policies, rules and technical measures to protect the personal data that we have under our control from:

  • unauthorised access
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  • unlawful destruction or accidental loss

All our employees, contractors and data processors (i.e. those who process your personal data on our behalf, for the purposes listed above), who have access to, and are associated with the processing of your personal data, are obliged to keep the information confidential and not use it for any other purpose than to carry out the services they are performing for us.


Everyone who works for or with Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd has some responsibility for ensuring data is collected, stored and handled appropriately. Each team handling personal data must ensure that it is handled and processed in line with this policy and data protection principles. However, the following people have key areas of responsibility. The board of directors is ultimately responsible for ensuring that Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd meets its legal obligations.

Name of Data Controller

The Data Controller is Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd. Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd is subject to the UK Data Protection Act 1998 and is registered in the UK with the Information Commissioner`s Office.

How to access, update and erase your personal information

If you wish to know whether we are keeping personal data about you, or if you have an enquiry about our privacy policy or your personal data held by us, in relation to any of the Sites, you can contact the Data Protection Officer via:

  • By writing to this address: Data Protection Officer, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd, 4 Hillgate Place, London, SW12 9ER, UK
  • Telephone: +44 (0) 20 8673 9666
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Upon request, we will provide you with a readable copy of the personal data which we keep about you. We may require proof of your identity and may charge a small fee (not exceeding the statutory maximum fee that can be charged) to cover administration and postage.

Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd allows you to challenge the data that we hold about you and, where appropriate in accordance with applicable laws, you may have your personal information:

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Disclosing data for other reasons

In certain circumstances, the Data Protection Act allows personal data to be disclosed to law enforcement agencies without the consent of the data subject. Under these circumstances, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd, will disclose requested data. However, the Data Controller will ensure the request is legitimate, seeking assistance from the board and from the company’s legal advisors where necessary.

Changes to this Privacy Statement

We will occasionally update this Privacy Statement to reflect new legislation or industry practice, group company changes and customer feedback. We encourage you to review this Privacy Statement periodically to be informed of how we are protecting your personal data.

Providing information

Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd aims to ensure that individuals are aware that their data is being processed, and that they understand.

  • How the data is being used
  • How to exercise their rights

To this end, the company has a privacy statement, setting out how data relating to individuals is used by the company. This is available on request and available on the company’s website.

Review of this policy

We keep this Policy under regular review. This Privacy Statement was last updated in April 2018.