Share this

Conflict minerals regulation: Unintended consequences or good for business?

Sustainability / 05-07-17 / by

New EU legislation will enforce mandatory supply chain checks on importers of four minerals sometimes used to fund armed groups in conflict areas. But while many companies have already made significant investments in responsible sourcing and transparent supply chains, more regulation could come at a cost, Sanne Wass reports.


When the White House drafted an executive order to suspend its conflict minerals law earlier this year – part of US President Donald Trump’s plans to de-regulate America – technology companies such as Apple, Intel and HP were quick to respond, saying that they would continue to uphold the high standards, regulated or not.

Broadly speaking, the conflict minerals rules of the 2010 Dodd Frank Act impose mandatory supply chain due diligence and annual reporting obligations for US companies using what has been dubbed ‘3TG minerals’ – tungsten, tantalum, tin and gold – which have been linked to armed conflicts and human rights abuses, mainly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighbouring countries. The most common of the four, tantalum, can be found in almost every small electronic device, from laptops and DVD players to mobile phones and hearing aids.

Critics, such as the US Chamber of Commerce and the National Association of Manufacturers, have said the law is too burdensome and expensive, and have claimed it would not achieve congress’ overall objectives.

And while it was expected that corporations would greet the prospect of less regulation with open arms, Trump’s attempt to lift yet another compliance burden prompted a different reaction.

“We do this because it’s the right thing to do,” Apple said in a statement after the draft executive order was leaked to the press in February.

Being associated with conflict minerals is simply bad for business – and the risk only becomes more significant with rising public and NGO scrutiny and customer expectation that brands maintain high sustainability and human rights standards.

“Conflict mineral disclosure will become a growing reputational issue, if not a legal one,” said Verisk Maplecroft, a global risk analysis company, in its 2017 geopolitical risk outlook published in May.

It’s not just pressure from customers: financial considerations play an important role too, with the term ‘impact investing’ – investments into companies with a positive social or environmental impact – flourishing around the globe.

Ironically, the American debate of scrapping requirements on conflict minerals comes right as politicians on the other side of the Atlantic are taking measures towards regulating the exact same area. And while industry professionals in the EU agree that association with armed conflict is a high reputational risk for any business, they have – just like in the US – a mixed take on the need for regulation and the consequences it may have for companies in the sector.


Legal issues

EU companies will have to start preparing for the new legislation approved by the European parliament on March 26, which will take effect in 2021. Before then, businesses covered by the law are required to adopt a supply chain policy in accordance with the OECD guidance on the matter, and incorporate it into contracts with their suppliers. They also have to put in place traceability systems identifying the name and type of minerals, quantities imported, suppliers and
the country and date of origin.

The EU rules differ slightly from those in the US in that they apply to a more narrowly-tailored group of companies, focusing entirely on upstream importers of the minerals, metals and their ores (namely mining companies, traders in raw materials, smelters and refiners) – which, it is argued, reflect the last stage at which it is possible to verify information on the minerals’ origin.

For those companies, the new regulation will come with an additional compliance cost, but most will be well prepared, explains John Sayers, partner in the trade finance team of law firm Simmons & Simmons.

“The legislation is obviously new, but the underlying issues around conflict minerals have been around for some time, along with general pressure to make supply chains more transparent,” he says. “This legislation wouldn’t have come in if there wasn’t some sense that the importers, the refiners, had transparency and understanding of their supply chains. So yes, there will be an ongoing cost connected with the legislation, but lots of the preparatory work has already happened.”

He says that, typically, refiners will source the majority of their minerals under long-term supply contracts with trusted exporters. “So when the legislation kicks in, EU refiners should have a stable sellers list, knowing that the minerals originate from the same source as in the last two, five, 10 years. It is only over time, as existing supplies dry up or become uneconomic, or new suppliers come online, that refiners will have to factor in compliance costs when considering whether to onboard new suppliers,” Sayers explains.

He adds that since the monitoring and enforcement of the law are delegated to member states, importers will focus on whether this, in practice, could result in differing regulatory standards applying across the EU.

But for trade finance bankers, who play a role in facilitating the import of minerals, there is a concern that the new regulation will add to the already heavy compliance burden on banks, and in effect discourage some from financing the sector.

Legally speaking, the regulation doesn’t put direct obligations on financial institutions, but banks will be concerned with reputational risk and being penalised for unintentionally financing companies accused of breaching the legislation.

“What the banks probably will default to is including some form of compliance undertaking that references the regulation in appropriate finance documentation,” Sayers says.

He adds that multinational government-funded institutions will be particularly concerned about the reputational risks of inadvertently funding activities engaged in by their bank counterparties.

“If you are going for a large financing involving an export credit agency or a multilateral organisation, they may look at this regulation and want some kind of formal comfort from their counterparty, whether it be the banks or the borrower, that the regulation has been complied with,” Sayers says.


Unintended consequences

Trade finance bankers at ING and Deutsche Bank tell GTR they already have high standards and due diligence procedures when engaging in the mineral import financing.

“One of the big non-financial risks that we consider on every transaction is the reputational risk,” says Deutsche Bank’s global head of structured commodity trade finance, John MacNamara. “As an institution, we have quite a lot of rules and guidelines around our social responsibilities. Obviously, you have to be more careful with some jurisdictions than others, but it’s a consideration on every single deal, irrespective of geography. We have no interest or risk appetite for handling conflict anything, whether it’s minerals or anything else.”

But, he adds, the new regulation will bring added administrative workload for banks operating in the sector. “The difference is that now we have to write down that we have zero risk appetite for these things, and then we have to check that we’ve complied with it on a regular basis, and then somebody has to check that we’ve checked,” MacNamara says.

One issue in particular is that the rules have a larger geographical scope than those of the US, which have focused only on imports from the DRC and surrounding territories. The EU regulation, on the other hand, covers imports of minerals from any country.

“One concern we are having is that it goes beyond the high-risk countries,” says Maarten Koning, ING’s global head of structured metals and energy finance. “For high-risk countries, this is already fully incorporated, and we are very strict on these areas. If we now also need to apply this for the rest of the world, then it really becomes an additional administrative requirement.”

His comments are echoed by MacNamara: “What the regulators who come up with these things miss is the law of unintended consequences. When the EU says: ‘Identify all conflict minerals,’ you are going to have to test all minerals to see if any have conflicted origin. You have got to check everything from the 195 countries in the world. That’s a very big job. It’s a much bigger task than I think the regulators realise.”

Various academics and commentators have already brought up the issue of unintended consequences of the conflict minerals law in the US. They argue that the resistance of companies to the costs of due diligence and reporting has led to a de facto embargo of minerals from the DRC, which has only devastated the country’s economy further.

MacNamara believes the new EU rules could discourage some banks from financing minerals altogether. “If we have rules against conflict minerals, the easy thing for a bank of a 100,000 people, of whom less than 2,000 are involved in trade finance, is to say: ‘Too difficult, we’re not going to finance minerals at all.’ Because the infrastructure you need to make sure that you are complying with these new regulations is just not cost-effective, so let’s just not finance minerals, full stop,” he says.

Koning agrees that, on top of an already big compliance burden, the EU conflict minerals law could be the “final straw that breaks the camel’s back” for some banks.

“I can imagine that some of the banks implementing these policies might come to the conclusion that the risk is increasing, and the administrative cost to manage it becomes disproportional,” he says. “In that sense, some banks might decide to look at smaller traders again and re-evaluate their relationships with them.”


Long-term benefits

While some bankers fear unintended consequences, other sources believe the new regulation will push even more companies to voluntarily take up the same standards. This is especially true for technology brands, which are more visible to stakeholders and particularly threatened by social issues in the supply chain.

“The most progressive and forward-thinking companies know the importance of identifying and addressing risk in their supply chains. And they are going to do it whether it’s required or not,” says Patricia Jurewicz, director of Responsible Sourcing Network, a US-based organisation that helps companies build responsible supply chains.

“There’s a lot of advantages for companies to be proactive on having more transparency and accountability in their own supply chain,” she says, adding that it will not only help them comply with conflict minerals rules, but also a range of other expectations and regulations concerning the environment and human rights.

Tim Mohin is the chief executive at Global Reporting Initiative, headquartered in the Netherlands, and has previously led CSR teams at AMD, Apple and Intel in the US. Having seen these companies go through the process of mapping out their supply chains over the last decade, he is optimistic about the positive effects of the new European regulation.

“When I first heard of this issue, I was working at Apple in 2007. I’ll never forget that day,” he says. “I thought to myself: ‘How are we ever going to do this?’ We were having trouble at that time just dealing with the first and second-tier suppliers, and now we’re talking third, fifth, seventh,” he says.

“That was 10 years ago. Fast-forward to now, and there was a heck of a lot of work to get here: companies like Apple, have figured out their supply chain from end product to raw material, and that has created huge benefits. Because they can manage their conflict mineral status, but other issues too.”

“In the long run, what I’ve seen on the Dodd Frank side, and this will probably be true on the EU side as well, is that those costs get minimised as people get more familiar with the process,” Mohin says.

“The question about unintended consequences is a good one and a fair one. However, we know that this is not an excuse to ignore the problem. The problem exists and is being funded by the supply chain, and so the supply chain has an obligation.”


In short: The EU’s new conflict minerals regulation

  • From January 1, 2021, EU importers of tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold will have to carry out due diligence on their supply chains.
  • The EU anticipates the law will apply directly to between 600 and 1,000 importers and indirectly to 500 smelters and refiners, some of which are based outside of the EU.
  • The regulation does not apply to EU importers who import less than a certain amount, nor to recycled metals or stocks created before February 1, 2013.
  • Downstream companies are not covered by the mandatory requirements, but they will be encouraged to adopt voluntary procedures, tools and mechanisms to make their supply chains more transparent.
  • Importers will be required to disclose to downstream purchasers the results of their due diligence, and publish an annual report on their activities.
  • The European Commission is preparing guidelines to help firms identify conflict-affected and high-risk areas, which should be ready by the end of 2017.
    The commission will also produce an “indicative, not exhaustive” list of high-risk areas, which will be updated regularly, as well as a whitelist of responsible smelters and refiners that are deemed to fulfil the requirements.
  • EU member states are responsible for checking that EU importers respect the law.

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

take me back


Recommended for you

Privacy Policy

Our privacy commitments

This Privacy Policy outlines the information we may collect about you in relation to your use of our websites, events, related publications and services (“personal data”) and how we may use that personal data. It also outlines the methods by which we and our service providers may (subject to necessary consents) monitor your online behaviour to deliver customised advertisements, marketing materials and other tailored services. This Privacy Policy also tells you how you can verify the accuracy of your personal data and how you can request that we delete or update it.

This Privacy Policy applies to all websites operated by Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd (as indicated on the relevant website).

This privacy statement does not cover the activities of third parties, and you should consult those third-party sites’ privacy policies for information on how your data is used by them.

Any questions regarding this Policy and our privacy practices should be sent by e-mail to or by writing to Data Protection Officer at, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd, 4 Hillgate Place, London, SW12 9ER, United Kingdom. Alternatively, you can telephone our London headquarters at +44 (0) 20 8673 9666.

Who are we?

Established in 2002 and with offices in London and Singapore, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd is the world’s leading trade and trade finance media company, offering information, news, events and services for companies and individuals involved in global trade.

Our principal business activities are:

  • Business-to-Business financial publishing. We provide a range of products and services focused on international commodities, export, supply chain and trade finance markets including magazines, newsletters, electronic information and data
  • Organisers of seminars, conferences, training courses and exhibitions for the finance industry

Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd is a company registered in the United Kingdom with company number 4407327 | VAT Registration: 799 1585 59

Data Protection Policy

This Data Protection Policy explains when and why we collect personal information about people who visit our website, how we use it, the conditions under which we may disclose it to others and how we keep it secure.

Why do we collect information from you?

Our primary goal in collecting personal data from you is to give you an enjoyable customised experience whilst allowing us to provide services and features that will meet your needs.
We collect certain personal data from you, which you give to us when using our Site and/or registering or subscribing for our products and services. However, we also give you the option to access our Sites’ home pages without subscribing or registering or disclosing your personal data.

We also collect certain personal data from other group companies to whom you have given information through their websites (including, by way of example, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd and subsidiaries, in accordance with the purposes listed below). Should we discover that any such personal data has been delivered to any of the Sites, we will remove that information as soon as possible.

Why this policy exists

This Data Protection Policy ensures Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd:

  • Complies with data protection law and follow good practice
  • Protects the rights of staff, customers and partners
  • Is open about how it stores and processes individuals’ data
  • pretexts itself from the risk of a data breach

We may change this Policy from time to time so please check this page occasionally to ensure that you’re happy with any changes. By using our website, you’re agreeing to be bound by this Policy.

Data protection law

The Data Protection Act 1998 described how organisations – including Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd – must collect, handle and store personal information. These rules apply regardless of whether data is stored electronically, on paper or on other materials. To comply with the law, personal information collected must be stored safely, not disclosed unlawfully and used fairly.

The Data Protection Act is underpinned by eight important principles. These say that personal data must:

  • Be processed fairly and lawfully
  • Be obtained only for specific, lawful purposes
  • Be adequate, relevant and not excessive
  • Be accurate and kept up to date
  • Not be held for any longer than necessary
  • Processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects
  • Be protected in appropriate ways
  • Not be transferred outside the European Economic Area (EEA), unless that country of territory also ensures an adequate level of protection

How do we collect information from you?

We obtain information about you when you use our website, for example, when you contact us about products and services, when you register for an event, register to receive eNewsletters, subscribe or register for a trial to our GTR magazine/website.

 Types of Personal Data Held and its Use

1.      Customer Services and Administration

On some Sites, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd collects personal data such as your name, job title, department, company, e-mail, phone, work and/or home address, in order to register you for access to certain content, subscriptions and events. In addition, we may also store information including IP address and page analytics, including information regarding what pages are accessed, by whom and when.

This information is used to administer and deliver to you the products and/or services you have requested, to operate our Sites efficiently and improve our service to you, and to retain records of our business transactions and communications. By using the Sites and submitting personal information through the registration process you are agreeing that we may collect, hold, process and use your information (including personal information) for the purpose of providing you with the Site services and developing our business, which shall include (without limitation) the purposes described in the below paragraphs.

2.      Monitoring use of our Sites

Where, as part of our Site services, we enable you to post information or materials on our Site, we may access and monitor any information which you upload or input, including in any password-protected sections. Subject to any necessary consents, we also monitor and/or record the different Sites you visit and actions taken on those Sites, e.g. content viewed or searched for. If you are a registered user (e.g. a subscriber or taking a trial), when you log on, this places a cookie on your machine. This enables your access to content and services that

are not publicly available. Once you are logged on, the actions you take – for example, viewing an article – will be recorded (subject to any necessary consents). We may use technology or a service provider to do this for us. This information may be used for one or more of the following purposes:

  • to fulfil our obligations to you;
  • to improve the efficiency, quality and design of our Sites and services;
  • to see which articles, features and services are most read and used
  • to track compliance with our terms and conditions of use, e.g. to ensure that you are acting within the scope of your user licence;
  • for marketing purposes (subject to your rights to opt-in and opt-out of receiving certain marketing communications) – see paragraph 3 below;
  • for advertising purposes, although the information used for these purposes does not identify you personally. Please see paragraph 5 below for more details;
  • to protect or comply with our legal rights and obligations; and
  • to enable our journalists to contact and interact with you online in connection with any content you may post to our Sites.

Please see paragraph 5 below for more information on cookies and similar technologies and a link to a page where you can turn them on or off.

3.      Marketing

Some of your personal data collected under paragraphs 1 and 2 above may be used by us to contact you by e-mail, telephone and/or post for sending information or promotional material on our products and/or services and/or those of our other group companies.
We give you the opportunity to opt-out of receiving marketing communications. Further detail can be found on the applicable Site and in the footer of each marketing communication sent by us, our group companies or service providers. See also “Consents and opt-outs” section below.
We will not share your information with third parties for marketing purposes.

4.      Profiling

We may analyse your personal information to create a profile of your interests and preferences so that we can contact you with information relevant to you.

5.      Cookies and similar technologies

All our Sites use cookies and similar technical tools to collect information about your access to the Site and the services we provide.

What is a cookie?

When you enter some sites, your computer will be issued with a cookie. Cookies are text files that identify your computer to servers. Cookies in themselves do not identify the individual user, just the computer used.

Many sites do this whenever a user visits their site in order to track traffic flows, recording those areas of the site that have been visited by the computer in question, and for how long.

Users have the opportunity to set their computers to accept all cookies, to notify them when a cookie is issued, or not to receive cookies at any time. Selecting not to receive means that certain personalised services Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd offers cannot then be provided to that user.


Why do we use cookies?

  1. Log In – Where we provide log in mechanisms for site users a cookie is created at login and for the duration of the session. Each cookie contains a unique reference number only (no personal information) which is used to confirm you are authorised.
  2. Analytics – To allow us to keep track of traffic to our website we use cookies. The cookies simply tell us if you have previously visited our website so we can get more accurate figures for New vs Returning visitors.

Find and control your cookies

All of the major browser providers offer advice on setting up and using the privacy and security functions for their products. If you require technical advice or support for a specific browser/version please contact the provider or visit their website for further details: / /
 / / /
 / /

We may use cookies to:

  • remember that you have used the Site before; this means we can identify the number of unique visitors we receive to different parts of the Site. This allows us to make sure we have enough capacity for the number of users that we get and make sure that the Site runs fast enough
  • remember your login session so you can move from one page to another within the Site;
  • store your preferences or your user name and password so that you do not need to input these details every time you visit the Site;
  • customise elements of the layout and/or content of the pages of Site for you;
  • record activity on our Sites so that we understand how you use our Sites enabling us to better tailor our content, services and marketing to your needs;
  • collect statistical information about how you use the Site so that we can improve the Site; and
  • gather information about the pages on the Site that you visit, and other information about other websites that you visit, so as to place you in a “market segment”. This information is only collected by reference to the IP address that you are using, but does include information about the county and city you are in, together with the name of your internet service provider.

Most web browsers automatically accept cookies but, if you prefer, you can change your browser to prevent that, or to notify you each time a cookie is set. You can also learn more about cookies in general by visiting which includes additional useful information on cookies and how to block cookies using different types of browser. Please note however, that by blocking, deleting or turning off cookies used on the Site you may not be able to take full advantage of the Site.

6.      E-mail tracking

E-mail tracking is a method for monitoring the e-mail delivery to those subscribers who have opted-in to receive marketing e-mails from GTR, including GTR Africa, GTR Asia, GTR Americas, GTR Europe, GTR Mena, GTR eNews, Third party e-mails and GTR Ventures.

Why do we track e-mails?

So that we can better understand our users’ needs, we track responses, subscription behaviour and engagement to our e-mails – for example, to see which links are the most popular in newsletters. They enable us to understand the consumers journey through metrics including open rate, click-through rate, bounces and unsubscribes. Any other purposes for which Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd wishes to use your personal data will be notified to you and your personal data will not be used for any such purpose without obtaining your prior consent.

How do you track GTR eNewsletters?

To do this, we use pixel GIFs, also known as “pixel tags” – these are small image files that are placed within the body of our e-mail messages. When that image is downloaded from our web servers, the e-mail is recorded as being opened. By using some form of digitally time-stamped record to reveal the exact time and date that an e-mail was received or opened, as well the IP address of the recipient.

7.      Consents and opt-outs

You can give your consent to opt-out of all or any particular uses of your data as indicated above by:

  • Indicating at the point on the relevant Site where personal data is collected
  • Informing us by e-mail, post or phone
  • Updating your preferences on the applicable Site or eNewsletter (unsubscribe and preference options are available in the footer of each eNewsletter)

To turn cookies and similar technologies on and off, see the information in paragraph 5 above. Any questions regarding consents and opt-outs should be sent by e-mail to or by writing to Data Protection Officer at, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd, 4 Hillgate Place, London, SW12 9ER, United Kingdom. Alternatively, you can telephone our London headquarters at +44 (0) 20 8673 9666.

8.      Disclosures

Information collected at one Site may be shared between Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd and other group companies for the purposes listed above.

We may transfer, sell or assign any of the information described in this policy to third parties as a result of a sale, merger, consolidation, change of control, transfer of assets or reorganisation of our business.

9.      Public forums, message boards and blogs

Some of our Sites may have a message board, blogs or other facilities for user generated content available and users can participate in these facilities. Any information that is disclosed in these areas becomes public information and you should always be careful when deciding to disclose your personal information.

10.  Data outside the EEA

Services on the Internet are accessible globally so collection and transmission of personal data is not always limited to one country. Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd may transfer your personal data, for the above-listed purposes to other third parties, which may be located outside the European Economic Area and/or with a different level of personal data protection. However, when conducting transfers, we take all necessary steps to ensure that your data is treated reasonably, securely and in accordance with this Privacy Statement.

Who has access to your information?

Confidentiality and Security of Your Personal Data

We are committed to keeping the data you provide us secure and will take reasonable precautions to protect your personal data from loss, misuse or alteration.

However, the transmission of information via the internet is not completely secure. Although we will do our best to protect your personal data, we cannot guarantee the security of your data transmitted to our Site; any transmission is at your own risk. Once we have received your information, we will use strict procedures and security features described above to try to prevent unauthorised access.

We have implemented information security policies, rules and technical measures to protect the personal data that we have under our control from:

  • unauthorised access
  • improper use or disclosure
  • unauthorised modification
  • unlawful destruction or accidental loss

All our employees, contractors and data processors (i.e. those who process your personal data on our behalf, for the purposes listed above), who have access to, and are associated with the processing of your personal data, are obliged to keep the information confidential and not use it for any other purpose than to carry out the services they are performing for us.


Everyone who works for or with Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd has some responsibility for ensuring data is collected, stored and handled appropriately. Each team handling personal data must ensure that it is handled and processed in line with this policy and data protection principles. However, the following people have key areas of responsibility. The board of directors is ultimately responsible for ensuring that Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd meets its legal obligations.

Name of Data Controller

The Data Controller is Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd. Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd is subject to the UK Data Protection Act 1998 and is registered in the UK with the Information Commissioner`s Office.

How to access, update and erase your personal information

If you wish to know whether we are keeping personal data about you, or if you have an enquiry about our privacy policy or your personal data held by us, in relation to any of the Sites, you can contact the Data Protection Officer via:

  • By writing to this address: Data Protection Officer, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd, 4 Hillgate Place, London, SW12 9ER, UK
  • Telephone: +44 (0) 20 8673 9666
  • E-mail:

Upon request, we will provide you with a readable copy of the personal data which we keep about you. We may require proof of your identity and may charge a small fee (not exceeding the statutory maximum fee that can be charged) to cover administration and postage.

Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd allows you to challenge the data that we hold about you and, where appropriate in accordance with applicable laws, you may have your personal information:

  • erased
  • rectified or amended
  • completed

Disclosing data for other reasons

In certain circumstances, the Data Protection Act allows personal data to be disclosed to law enforcement agencies without the consent of the data subject. Under these circumstances, Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd, will disclose requested data. However, the Data Controller will ensure the request is legitimate, seeking assistance from the board and from the company’s legal advisors where necessary.

Changes to this Privacy Statement

We will occasionally update this Privacy Statement to reflect new legislation or industry practice, group company changes and customer feedback. We encourage you to review this Privacy Statement periodically to be informed of how we are protecting your personal data.

Providing information

Exporta Publishing & Events Ltd aims to ensure that individuals are aware that their data is being processed, and that they understand.

  • How the data is being used
  • How to exercise their rights

To this end, the company has a privacy statement, setting out how data relating to individuals is used by the company. This is available on request and available on the company’s website.

Review of this policy

We keep this Policy under regular review. This Privacy Statement was last updated in April 2018.

Welcome to GTR's new website! Enjoy 4 free articles on us.
If you already have a subscription to GTR, please
For log in issues or questions, please contact Rupert Hedley at or
If you do not have an active subscription, please
to continue your access.
Sorry, this publication is available for subscribers only!
If you already have a subscription to GTR, please
For log in issues or questions, please contact Rupert Hedley at or
If you do not have an active subscription, please
to continue your access.
Welcome to the GTR's new website!
If you already have a subscription to GTR, please
For log in issues or questions, please contact Rupert Hedley at or
If you do not have an active subscription, enjoy 4 articles on us this month!
to start your access.
Welcome to GTR's new website! Enjoy 4 free articles on us.
If you already have a subscription to GTR, please
For log in issues or questions, please contact Rupert Hedley at or
If you do not have an active subscription, please
to continue your access.
Sorry, this publication is available for subscribers only!
If you are a GTR subscriber, please
For log in issues or questions, please contact Rupert Hedley at or
If you do not have an active GTR subscription, you can still enjoy 4 free articles this month on us!
To subscribe to GTR,
Welcome to the GTR's new website!
If you already have a subscription to GTR, please
For log in issues or questions, please contact Rupert Hedley at or
If you do not have an active subscription, enjoy 4 articles on us this month!
to start your access.